Top 10 Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

Programming languages are means of communication used by humans to instruct computers to perform specific tasks. To create programs that perform specialized tasks, these languages use particular coding syntax. A career in software programming can be lucrative. Approximately 21% of programming jobs are projected to be created by 2028. There are around 700 programming languages, according to Wikipedia. Therefore, deciding which to learn can be challenging.

Every year, new and better programming languages are added to the list, which further adds to the confusion. We are here to rescue you, so don’t worry. Based on career perceptions, future demands, business requirements, and features of Custom Software Development in different programming languages. 

The Levels of Programming 

Several programming languages have their specific purpose, with unique sets of keywords and syntaxes used to create instructions. Programming languages are classified into two categories:

  • Low-level language
  • High-level language

Low-Level Language

In low-level languages, machine instructions are represented in binary form, i.e., 0 or 1. There are two categories of low-level languages: machine-level languages and assembly-level languages.

High-Level Language

Programming in high-level languages allows us to write programs that are independent of the type of computer. In high-level languages, the logic of the problem is closely related to human speech, making them easy to understand, however they require a lot of attention to logic. Compilers are needed to translate high-level languages into low-level languages. In addition, high-level languages offer the following advantages:

Easy to learn and maintain

Portable, i.e., they are machine-independent

Types of Programming 

We should first understand the different types of programming languages before moving on to popular coding languages. There is a difference between programming language levels and programming language types. Programming language types refer to how the code is written and designed, rather than where it sits within the machine-assembly-human hierarchy.

1) Procedural Programming Languages

A procedural programming language uses well-structured procedures and steps to compose a program, derived from structured programming.

The program is divided into variables, statements, functions, and conditional operators. BASIC, C, Java, PASCAL, and FORTRAN are some examples of these programs.

2) Functional Programming Languages

Using a functional programming language, you can compose and apply functions to build programs. Expressions and declarations are the primary features of the language. Performing calculations using conditional expressions and recursion is the foundation of functional programming. There is no support for loop statements & conditional statements such as if-else statements. Haskell, SML, Scala, F#, ML, and Scheme are some of the most popular functional programming languages.

3) Object-oriented programming Language

In object-oriented programming, data is stored in fields, and code is stored in procedures. In OOP, there are many features such as abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, and classes. 

To ensure secure code, encapsulation is the most important principle. Furthermore, it emphasizes code reusability through inheritance and polymorphism, which can be used to enhance existing implementations without requiring too many changes. Java, C++, C#, Python, and Javascript, among many others, are multi-paradigm languages that use OOPs.

4) Scripting Programming Languages

A scripting language does not require compilation. In contrast, they are interpreted (no compilation is required). Run-time instructions are written for a run-time environment. A majority of the languages are used in web applications, system administration, games, and multimedia applications. For existing applications, it is used to create plugins and extensions. 

For server-side scripting, Javascript, PHP, and PERL are popular languages; for client-side scripting, Shell is popular; for system administration, PERL, and Python are popular; and Ruby is popular for web development.

5) Logic Programming

The programming paradigm is based on formal logic. The language does not tell the machine how to do something but uses restrictions on what it must consider doing. PROLOG, ASAP, and Datalog are well-known logic programming languages with rules written in classes.

Now that you know that, we can finally move on to the top programming languages in 2023. Since they are the most common jobs in software development, you’ll be well prepared if you plan to pursue a career in this field.

1: Python

Python is the future of programming languages. As per the latest statistics, Python is one of the essential coding languages for around 80% of developers. Python facilitates artificial intelligence, data science, and machine learning processes due to the presence of extensive libraries. 

It is one of the most profitable languages that offers features like:

  • Easy to learn 
  • Easy to code.
  • Extensive libraries and frameworks that support many applications.
  • GUI support.
  • Companies working on Python: Intel, Spotify, Facebook, and Netflix.

2: Java

The Java programming language is one of the most powerful and is used in more than 3 billion devices today. It is used in desktop applications, web development, cloud applications, Artificial intelligence(AI), mobile applications, and many more. 

Some of the major features of Java are:

  • Platform independence 
  • Object-oriented programming
  • Enhanced performance, productivity, and security
  • It is the most secure language
  • Companies working on Java are Amazon, Flipkart, Adobe, and Instagram.

So this language can be regarded as one of the topmost languages to learn in 2023.

3: JavaScript

JavaScript can be regarded as one of the world’s most popular programming languages on the web. More than 97 percent of websites use JavaScript on the client side, according to the survey.

  • It has a well-organized codebase that provides readability and enhanced productivity
  • Easy to learn 
  • Highly in demand.
  • Platform independence 
  • Greater control of the browser.  
  • Provide user input validation features.
  • The top companies using JavaScript are Microsoft, PayPal, Uber, Google, and Walmart.

According to the statistics, 72% of companies are looking for JavaScript developers. 

4: Kotlin

Designed for app development, Kotlin is a cross-platform programming language. Over 60% of Android developers use it. Several renowned indices rank Kotlin fourth among the fastest-growing programming languages. The following are some of the most prominent features of Kotlin:

  • Concise code 
  • Structured concurrency
  • Enhanced security features.
  • Coding is roughly 20% less as compared to Java.
  • It is 100% interoperable.
  • Companies working on Kotlin are Pinterest, Trello, Uber, and Amazon.

5: R

For statistical and graphical programming, R is a programming language. For data analysis, it is widely used by statisticians and data miners. 

As a result, it is of profound importance in the fields of data analysis, finance, and telecommunications.

  • Extended libraries support interactive graphics
  • Object-oriented programming language
  • Supports cross-platform operation
  • Highly extensible.
  • The top companies; that are, using R are Flipkart, Google, Amazon, and LinkedIn.

There is currently a shortage of skilled R programmers, so learning this language could be a wise career choice.

6: PHP

In the future, PHP will continue to hold its importance as one of the general-purpose scripting languages. To enhance web pages, it is one of the first server-side languages that can be embedded with HTML. Increasing online trends have made PHP developers highly sought after. Some of the features are:

  • Simple and easy to learn.
  • Faster than other scripting languages
  • Highly secure to prevent threats and attacks.
  • Websites that run on PHP are Facebook, Yahoo, and Wikipedia.

7: Go

One of the most efficient and reliable programming languages is Go. It was developed by Google in the year 2007 to manage its rapidly growing infrastructure. One of the most popular programming languages, it gained popularity quickly. Some of the features of Go are:

  • Simple to learn.
  • Supports automation processes
  • It facilitates AI and data science processes.
  • Companies working on Go are Medium, Google, BBC, and Uber.

8: C  

General-purpose programming languages like C are designed to be used in games, graphics, and enterprise applications. It offers features like:

  • Presence of inbuilt functions and operators
  • It is extendable.
  • Enhanced speed and efficiency.
  • The top companies using C are GitHub, Telegram messenger, and MasterCard.
  • It remains in high demand despite the emergence of new programming languages. 

9: Swift

Developed by Apple Inc., this programming language is robust and easy to learn. This tool can be used to develop apps for a variety of platforms, including iOS, watchOS, macOS, and more. 

In the future, high-performance and secure applications will be based on it. It offers features like:

  • Easy to understand and maintain.
  • Speeds development process.
  • Enhanced performance.
  • Supports dynamic libraries
  • Companies working on Swift are Uber, Apple, Instagram, and Slack.

10: C#

In 2000, Microsoft developed C#, a programming language that runs on the .NET framework. Desktop and game applications can be made with it. 34% of the top mobile games are made using C#, as per the survey. It is a well-designed language and this language is highly in demand globally.  

  • Simple to learn and understand.
  • It is fully integrated with .NET libraries.
  • The top companies working on C# are Microsoft, Accenture, Stack Overflow, and Alibaba Travels.

Which Programming Language Should You Learn?

Choosing a programming language depends on the type of software you intend to develop. There are no concrete rules for what language should be used when writing software, but a few trends can help: 

  • JavaScript and Python are more likely to be used in web-based startups.
  • C# and Java are the most commonly used programming languages in larger companies, while PHP is used for Web applications.
  • R and MATLAB are typically used to program data analytics programs.
  • Software written in C, C++, or Rust runs on embedded devices, such as those in the automotive and healthcare industries.
  • Cloud applications are increasingly written in Go or Scala.  
  • Swift and Kotlin are increasingly used for mobile applications.

Source: Top 10 Programming Languages to Learn in 2023 (

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